Both parts of the tongue develop from different pharyngeal arches. These muscles alter the shape of the tongue by lengthening and shortening it, curling and uncurling its apex and edges as in tongue rolling , and flattening and rounding its surface. The ventral surface is stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium which is smooth. The chondroglossus is often included with this muscle. The foramen cecum marks the end of this division at about 2. The inferior longitudinal muscle lines the sides of the tongue, and is joined to the styloglossus muscle. It also forms the anterior wall of the oropharynx. The palatoglossus arises from the palatine aponeurosis , and depresses the soft palate , moves the palatoglossal fold towards the midline, and elevates the back of the tongue during swallowing. The posterior part is, at its root, directed backward, and connected with the hyoid bone by the hyoglossi and genioglossi muscles and the hyoglossal membrane , with the epiglottis by three glossoepiglottic folds of mucous membrane, with the soft palate by the glossopalatine arches , and with the pharynx by the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the mucous membrane. The tongue is a muscular hydrostat that forms part of the floor of the oral cavity. Nerve supply[ edit ] Innervation of the tongue consists of motor fibers, special sensory fibers for taste, and general sensory fibers for sensation. The vertical muscle is located in the middle of the tongue, and joins the superior and inferior longitudinal muscles.
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